What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the practice of cultivating fields of land, breeding farm animals, sowing of plants to provide materials, fibre, meat and other important materials need to sustain today’s modern life.
What are the different types of agriculture?
Agriculture today is multi-billion dollar business. It is present and needed everywhere but it is not uniform all around the world. The different types of agriculture can be based on type of livestock, type of crop, level of mechanization, intensity etc. a few them are given below:
- Commercial plantations
This type of plantation agriculture is practiced over a rather small area and yields commercial products like tea, coffee, rubber and palm oil. It is relatively high capital intensive farming and is mostly practiced in the areas of Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia.
- Shifting Cultivation
Under this type of agriculture, land is obtained by clearing forest areas using slash and burn technique, which is a rather environmental damaging method. The land then obtained is cultivated for a few years or till when the fertility rate of the land declines and is either swallowed by the weeds and native flora. It is mainly practiced in the tropics.
- Nomadic Herding
Nomadic herding is the practise of rearing of animals on natural pastures. This is mainly practiced in the people of arid and semi arid regions. The herders are always on the move to seek new pastures to let them animals graze on. Different types of animals will be raised depending on the type of countries and its climatic conditions.
- Livestock Ranching
Here, livestock animals are mainly raised or meat and wool. They are kept on large commercial plots to graze, called ranches. This is mainly located in areas of North America and South America. Unlike nomadic herding, the farmers are settled.
- Mediterranean Agriculture
In the areas of rugged Mediterranean terrain, horticulture, vineyards, citrus fruits and small animals and typical combinations of crops are raised.
- Dairy Farming
Dairy farming is a class of agriculture focused on the long term production of mainly milk and other items based on it. Close proximity with the market and a temperate climate are the two most favourable conditions. Sweden and Denmark have seen maximum development in these areas.
- Specialized Horticulture
This type of agriculture focuses on production of horticulture products. Due to the increase in urbanization and growing population, there has been an in increase for horticulture. Vineyard production is on the rise in areas of Hungary and France.
- Subsistence Crop and Stock Farming
This type of farming is practiced in areas of middle latitudes, less fertile soils and rough terrains. Almost any product reared and yielded is not for sale.
- Commercial Grain Farming
This type of farming is in response to farm mechanization and is present mainly in areas of low rainfall and high population.
- Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage
This is a subsistence type of agriculture as the same plot of land is used again and again. Fallowing is the technique used here to maintain its fertility rate. Mainly grain crops and few tree crops are raised here.